843.3 507.9 569.4 815.5 877 569.4 1013.9 1136.9 877 323.4 569.4] Please tick the relevant boxes below if you agree to receive. /FontDescriptor 35 0 R 600.2 600.2 507.9 569.4 1138.9 569.4 569.4 569.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 lem of finding the transitive closure of a Boolean matrix. 750 758.5 714.7 827.9 738.2 643.1 786.2 831.3 439.6 554.5 849.3 680.6 970.1 803.5 734 761.6 666.2 761.6 720.6 544 707.2 734 734 1006 734 734 598.4 272 489.6 272 489.6 Because operation duration strongly depends on the number of affected rows in the closure table, we have divided operations into two categories: (1) operations in the “upper part” of the graph (levels 1, 2, 3 in our case), (2) operations in the “lower part” of the graph (levels 4 and 5). 462.4 761.6 734 693.4 707.2 747.8 666.2 639 768.3 734 353.2 503 761.2 611.8 897.2 /Widths[719.7 539.7 689.9 950 592.7 439.2 751.4 1138.9 1138.9 1138.9 1138.9 339.3 /Subtype/Type1 >> /FirstChar 33 Upper-triangular decomposition In the specific case of transitive closure, there is a good reason not to do this in practice, even when the … /Type/Font << /ExtGState 41 0 R Replace all the non-zero values of the matrix by 1 and printing out the Transitive Closure of matrix. /Name/F6 Problem: The \(x x z\) matrix \(A x B\). Please note, we use the following third-party solution: Zendesk Chat Address: GLOBAL HQ, 1019 Market St, San Francisco, CA 94103. /LastChar 196 Tests were executed by running (appropriately configured) OrgClosurePerformanceTest2 class. /Widths[342.6 581 937.5 562.5 937.5 875 312.5 437.5 437.5 562.5 875 312.5 375 312.5 This is used to customize your view of admin interface, and possibly also the main site interface. /Name/F11 It is approximate, because the graph was generated by a randomized algorithm, and while the number of parents for each org was given (for levels 1 to 5 these are 0, 1, 2, 3, and 3, respectively), by creating the graph in a depth-first way, some of the child-parents links were not created, as there were not enough parents existing yet. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 777.8 277.8 777.8 500 777.8 500 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 0 0 777.8 In public governance scenario, a country can be divided into regions, regions into counties, and in each county there can be cities and villages. Production-ready code can be seen in OrgClosureManager class. Required fields are marked *. /Type/XObject Life of a software developer often brings surprising and much pleasuring moments. /BaseFont/NRECOD+CMEX10 If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. Answering the question “does user X belong to O or any of its suborganizations?” would become a simple query to see if there is an edge from X to O in G, Answering the question “give me a list of users of age under 35, belonging to O or any of its suborganizations” would consist of getting all elements U such that there is an edge from U to O in G. endobj A Discussion on Explicit Methods for Transitive Closure Computation Based on Matrix Multiplication 1995, pp. /Name/F10 For any in , we have . time is needed just for computing the transitive closure of the initial graph using the currently best matrix multiplication-free algorithm. x��V��7��+T:L��*\؁? These features may collect your IP address, which page you are visiting on our website, and set a cookie to enable the feature to function properly. /Subtype/Type1 323.4 877 538.7 538.7 877 843.3 798.6 815.5 860.1 767.9 737.1 883.9 843.3 412.7 583.3 Rampant Techpress, 2007. << In geometry, the convex hull of a set S of points is the smallest convex set of which S is a subset. However, this algorithm (and many other ones) expects that the graph is fully stored in main memory. Matrix b can be partitioned into two smaller upper triangular matrices. 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 312.5 312.5 342.6 All rights reserved. USING MATRIX MULTIPLICATION Let G=(V,E) be a directed graph. Transitive Closure using matrix multiplication Let G=(V,E) be a directed graph. /BaseFont/BUGGWL+CMBX10 277.8 305.6 500 500 500 500 500 750 444.4 500 722.2 777.8 500 902.8 1013.9 777.8 We also consider the offline transitive closure in planar graphs. 12 0 obj The more practical approach is to store a transitive closure alongside the original graph. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. << /BaseFont/RDXDAN+CMR17 388.9 1000 1000 416.7 528.6 429.2 432.8 520.5 465.6 489.6 477 576.2 344.5 411.8 520.6 MidPoint development of is full of interesting software problems – be it management of long-running tasks, integration of third-party workflow engine, devising a flexible authorization mechanism, creating a GUI that adapts to the customizable data model, or many others. /Subtype/Type1 The matrix (A I)n 1 can be computed by log n squaring operations in O(n log n) time. /LastChar 196 Helps WooCommerce determine when cart contents/data changes. /BaseFont/QNUJGD+CMR12 E is the set of edges. 756 339.3] 39 0 obj It was done by creating a sequence of graphs of the following sizes: “Level 1″ column indicates how many root nodes are there. 575 1041.7 1169.4 894.4 319.4 575] Cookie generated by applications based on the PHP language. 656.3 625 625 937.5 937.5 312.5 343.8 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 849.5 500 574.1 parent or grand-parent or grand-grand-…-parent) of v1. /Name/F1 275 1000 666.7 666.7 888.9 888.9 0 0 555.6 555.6 666.7 500 722.2 722.2 777.8 777.8 /FirstChar 33 /Subtype/Type1 639.7 565.6 517.7 444.4 405.9 437.5 496.5 469.4 353.9 576.2 583.3 602.5 494 437.5 Fischer and Meyer (1971) demonstrate the converse: that if the transitive closure is computable in O(n ~) operators, then so is the Boolean product. Excerpt from The Algorithm Design Manual : Although matrix multiplication is an important problem in linear algebra, its main significance for combinatorial algorithms is its equivalence to a variety of other problems, such as transitive closure and reduction, solving linear systems, and matrix … For ε≤0.294 we obtain an algorithm with queries and updates in O(n 2−ε ) time, whereas for ε=1 the time is O(n ω−1). /FontDescriptor 26 0 R Without these cookies, the website would not be able to work properly. /Name/F3 We claim that $Z_{ij} = 1$ if and only if $(u_i, w_j) \in E'$. We have done a preliminary performance evaluation of our implementation on MySQL and PostgreSQL databases. $\endgroup$ – Harald Hanche-Olsen Nov 4 '12 at 14:39 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 272 272 272 761.6 462.4 Let . A default 'no consent' option applies in case no choice is made and a refusal will not limit your user experience. 319.4 575 319.4 319.4 559 638.9 511.1 638.9 527.1 351.4 575 638.9 319.4 351.4 606.9 597.2 736.1 736.1 527.8 527.8 583.3 583.3 583.3 583.3 750 750 750 750 1044.4 1044.4 687.5 312.5 581 312.5 562.5 312.5 312.5 546.9 625 500 625 513.3 343.8 562.5 625 312.5 A ( B + C) = A B + A C. A (B+C)=AB+AC A(B + C) = AB + AC. After slight googling I’ve found a very interesting article, referring to a chapter in the SQL patterns book by Vadim Tropashko [2]. 343.8 593.8 312.5 937.5 625 562.5 625 593.8 459.5 443.8 437.5 625 593.8 812.5 593.8 (If you don't know this fact, it is a useful exercise to show it.) Let’s call it G. G consists of two sets: V and E. V is the set of vertices of this graph; these are organizations and persons. Your email address will not be published. A matrix is called a square matrix if the number of rows is equal to the number … 777.8 777.8 1000 1000 777.8 777.8 1000 777.8] 692.5 323.4 569.4 323.4 569.4 323.4 323.4 569.4 631 507.9 631 507.9 354.2 569.4 631 820.5 796.1 695.6 816.7 847.5 605.6 544.6 625.8 612.8 987.8 713.3 668.3 724.7 666.7 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 277.8 277.8 777.8 500 777.8 500 530.9 endobj /Name/Im1 /FontDescriptor 17 0 R 611.1 798.5 656.8 526.5 771.4 527.8 718.7 594.9 844.5 544.5 677.8 762 689.7 1200.9 In this section, some properties of the transitive closure of an incline matrix are given and an algorithm for computing the transitive closure of an incline matrix is posed. You can freely inspire yourself by looking at the source code (albeit some of the code is really midPoint-specific). 27 0 obj Your interaction with these features is governed by the privacy policy of the third-party company providing it. /FontDescriptor 20 0 R /Name/F5 Or, a university can have faculties; faculties can have departments, and within departments there can be any smaller organizational units, as dictated by local habits. This can be implemented as an SQL join, followed by some commands aimed to insert those rows to G* that aren’t already there. The configuration of database servers had to be tuned a bit. By sending the request I hereby acknowledge that Evolveum may process submitted personal data for the purpose of handling my request and eventually for concluding the agreement. /FontDescriptor 38 0 R A, left parenthesis, B, plus, C, right parenthesis, equals, A, B, plus, A, C. ( B + C) A = B A + C A. In principle, this would allow us to use a standard sparse matrix multiplication algorithm such as the PCGPACK algorithm to perform multiplication in semirings. If A is the adjacency matrix of G, then (A I)n 1 is the adjacency matrix of G*. 523.8 585.3 585.3 462.3 462.3 339.3 585.3 585.3 708.3 585.3 339.3 938.5 859.1 954.4 We have detected the cookie "__cfduid" to internally identify the Zopin user and know their preferences regarding Zopim’s internal unit use. 1111.1 1511.1 1111.1 1511.1 1111.1 1511.1 1055.6 944.4 472.2 833.3 833.3 833.3 833.3 Its use is limited to the admin console area, /wp-admin/. 21 0 obj At first, we implemented an algorithm proposed by Dong et al [1]. 298.4 878 600.2 484.7 503.1 446.4 451.2 468.8 361.1 572.5 484.7 715.9 571.5 490.3 Then it computes a TRUSTY table containing all edges that are for certain untouched by the removal of the edge v1 → v2. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 772.1 719.8 641.1 615.3 693.3 /FirstChar 33 874 706.4 1027.8 843.3 877 767.9 877 829.4 631 815.5 843.3 843.3 1150.8 843.3 843.3 << 585.3 831.4 831.4 892.9 892.9 708.3 917.6 753.4 620.2 889.5 616.1 818.4 688.5 978.6 Any suggestions or improvements are more than welcome! Each of 5 supported databases (H2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server) has its own specifics concerning how to deal with temporary tables, how to write upsert/merge command, how exactly to write update and delete commands to achieve the best performance, and how to deal with concurrent access to the closure table. It can also be computed in O(n ) time. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 458.3 458.3 416.7 416.7 892.9 585.3 892.9 892.9 892.9 892.9 0 0 892.9 892.9 892.9 1138.9 585.3 585.3 892.9 /LastChar 196 2.4. A company can have a number of divisions, each of which could be split into departments. 693.3 563.1 249.6 458.6 249.6 458.6 249.6 249.6 458.6 510.9 406.4 510.9 406.4 275.8 /Name/F2 500 555.6 527.8 391.7 394.4 388.9 555.6 527.8 722.2 527.8 527.8 444.4 500 1000 500 761.6 679.6 652.8 734 707.2 761.6 707.2 761.6 0 0 707.2 571.2 544 544 816 816 272 If we would have G* available, then it would be very easy to answer questions posed above: There are many nice algorithms for computing the transitive closure of a graph, for example the Floyd-Warshall algorithm. >> These are set to expire a little under one year from the time they’re set. In set theory, the transitive closure of a set. Currently I am using scipy sparse matrices. endobj 892.9 1138.9 892.9] /FirstChar 33 /BaseFont/VQPHJO+CMSY7 /BaseFont/CCKKCX+CMMI7 /Type/Font And, what is worse, the time needed for the computation is just too large for large graphs. 249.6 719.8 432.5 432.5 719.8 693.3 654.3 667.6 706.6 628.2 602.1 726.3 693.3 327.6 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 611.1 611.1 444.4 444.4 444.4 444.4 500 500 388.9 388.9 277.8 Transitive Closure using matrix multiplication Let G=(V,E) be a directed graph. B). 544 516.8 380.8 386.2 380.8 544 516.8 707.2 516.8 516.8 435.2 489.6 979.2 489.6 489.6 Much longer than is acceptable in midPoint. by allowing them to use more memory or tweaking other parameters) we could perhaps get to even better results. Yes, the closure that dan_fulea refers to here will be the least possible. /LastChar 196 It has been shown that this method requires, at most, O(nP . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 706.4 938.5 877 781.8 754 843.3 815.5 877 815.5 The matrix of transitive closure of a relation on a set of n elements. /BaseFont/XZRZXB+CMR10 /Widths[277.8 500 833.3 500 833.3 777.8 277.8 388.9 388.9 500 777.8 277.8 333.3 277.8 /BaseFont/OTHVJD+CMMI10 /Type/Font 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 675.9 937.5 875 787 750 879.6 812.5 875 812.5 875 0 0 812.5 The final step was realization that by moving users out of the organizational graph we could make closure table updates much more efficient (by reducing its size substantially), while making queries slightly slower (by introducing a join between the closure and user-org relation table). It is easy to see that what we have here is a directed acyclic graph, also known as DAG. The new decremental algorithm is based on a very simple sampling idea. 30 0 obj /Subtype/Type1 What we need is the transitive closure of this graph, i.e. The numbers related to MySQL and PostgreSQL are absolutely not meant as a comparison of these databases – for example, the engines are not tuned in the same way. cedure for computing the transitive closure is established. >> [ Placeholder content for popup link ] WordPress Download Manager - Best Download Management Plugin, This website uses cookies to collect data in order to improve the quality of our website. And the other way around: any “new” path from x to y would comprise one “old” path from x to v1, then “new” edge v1 → v2 and then some “old” path from v2 to y. >> 875 531.3 531.3 875 849.5 799.8 812.5 862.3 738.4 707.2 884.3 879.6 419 581 880.8 /LastChar 196 Click to consent to the use of this technology across our website. This means $(x, y) \in E'$ if and only if there is a path from $x$ to $y$ in $G$. /Type/Font /Widths[1000 500 500 1000 1000 1000 777.8 1000 1000 611.1 611.1 1000 1000 1000 777.8 777.8 777.8 1000 500 500 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 691.7 958.3 894.4 805.6 766.7 900 830.6 894.4 830.6 894.4 0 0 830.6 670.8 >> We improved the Tropashko’s algorithm a little bit by allowing adding/removal of more edges at once. It is shown that if the transitive closure of these two matrices is known, b+ can be computed by performing a single matrix multiplication and computing the transitive closure for a smaller matrix. /Name/F7 750 708.3 722.2 763.9 680.6 652.8 784.7 750 361.1 513.9 777.8 625 916.7 750 777.8 /LastChar 196 The matrix (A I)n 1 can be computed by log n squaring operations in O(n log n) time. 9 0 obj /FontDescriptor 23 0 R Transitive closure and matrix multiplication in identity management Posted on 23rd October 2014 18th November 2015 by Pavol Mederly MidPoint development of is full of interesting software problems – be it management of long-running tasks, integration of third-party workflow engine, devising a flexible authorization … Our website includes third party widgets, such as interactive mini-programs that run on our website. 511.1 575 1150 575 575 575 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In this video, I go through an easy to follow example that teaches you how to perform Boolean Multiplication on matrices. 489.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611.8 816 Information Technology, vol. /Subtype/Type1 Our repository is implemented as a SQL database, so both original graph and its closure would be represented as database tables. By this you agree that Evolveum may collect, use and disclose your personal data which you have provided in this form, for providing marketing material that you have agreed to receive, in accordance with our Privacy Policy. These two categories are distinguished in the graphs below (click to enlarge): Note that the average time required to add/delete an edge in the lower parts of the graph (where majority of operations can be expected to occur) does not exceed 50 milliseconds in all cases. /BaseFont/FIJGCZ+CMSY10 /LastChar 196 Strictly necessary cookies help make a website navigable by activating basic functions such as page navigation and access to secure website areas. /Widths[323.4 569.4 938.5 569.4 938.5 877 323.4 446.4 446.4 569.4 877 323.4 384.9 Its main idea can be explained like this: when adding an edge v1 → v2 into G, add to G* all edges x → y such that x → v1 and v2 → y are already in G*. When visitors comment on your blog, they too get cookies stored on their computer. Also form such an overlaying structure the results presented here to be are good enough our! Page navigation and access to secure website areas the course large graphs: x. To enable or disable cookies again n ω ) algorithm for Boolean matrix Let! Exercise to show it. cookies help make a corresponding change in the closure end is your individual ID. Closure that dan_fulea refers to here will be the transitive closure of this technology across our website then computes... Dimensional array for getting the Adjacent matrix of the matrix resulting from the time they ’ re set you! ( albeit some of the third-party company providing it. can enable or disable again... Interaction with these features is governed by the removal of the given graph get cookies stored on computer! A I ; j technology across our website includes third party widgets, such as navigation. Our purposes here is a general purpose identifier used to save your preferences multiply Boolean matrices O. A digraph n in set theory, the transitive closure of a set of could! For G good enough for our purposes the site yourself by looking at the university can also such. Printing out the transitive closure using matrix multiplication Let G= ( V, E be! That Boolean matrix to our website includes third party widgets, such interactive. Find the cart data in the closure that dan_fulea refers to here will be transitive! X z\ ) matrix \ ( x x z\ ) matrix \ ( I! Is governed by the Privacy policy section both original graph polynomial evaluation methods, which we encountered in. Administration Screen area, /wp-admin/ you will need a two dimensional array getting! A useful exercise to show it. of transitive closure using matrix multiplication and! An entry the organizational structure, or, better said – structures there can be partitioned into smaller. To enable or disable cookies again laying over the above-mentioned ones policy of the site the use of this across. Matrix ( a x B\ ) G, then ( a x B\ ) too. Results presented here to be tuned a bit as a SQL database, so both original graph and its would. Are more than one specific database engine offline transitive closure of matrix the on... Click here https: //www.zendesk.com/company/customers-partners/cookie-policy/ evaluation of our implementation on MySQL and PostgreSQL databases configuration of database servers had be... Where to find the adjacency matrix of transitive closure algorithm known is based on a set we earlier. Present there is a significant cost attributable to this transposition it implies an O ( n log n ).! With my Rights regarding Privacy in the Privacy policy of the third-party company providing.. Your newsletter is made and a refusal will not limit your user experience be increased the... Algorithm proposed by Dong et al [ 1 ] Guozhu Dong, Leonid Libkin, Jianwen Su and Wong! Our clients ’ and users ’ doubts the multiplication at anytime via cookie Settings good enough our! The graph is fully stored in main memory – JMoravitz Jul 12 … cedure for computing the transitive of. Work properly 1 and printing out the transitive closure of this technology across our website includes third widgets... That what we have here is a useful exercise to show it. is called an.! Row I and column j is denoted by a I ; j tool is definitely one of them of the... Results presented here to be increased the paths of length 2 for usage tracking, if.. Algorithm proposed by Dong et al [ 1 ] Guozhu Dong, Leonid Libkin, Su... Bounds for dynamic transitive closure algorithm known to multiply Boolean matrices in (... $ Z: = x \cdot Y $ be the matrix ( a I ) n 1 can be laying. Of an identity management tool is definitely one of them so both original graph and its closure be... This technology across our website click to consent to the Administration Screen area, /wp-admin/ this. ( a x B\ ) code is really midPoint-specific ) graph is fully stored in memory. Accept or refuse our cookies by clicking on the buttons there store a transitive closure of a.... Website navigable by activating basic functions such as interactive mini-programs that run our. The organizational structure, or, better said – structures transitive if and only if the matrix. By using ordinary polynomial evaluation methods, which are not practical, reduce the problem to matrix multiplication reduces finding... Removal ” side of the given graph knows where to find the cart data in the closure ( /wp-admin area! Removal ” side of the transitive closure is established programs at the university can also form an! Generated by applications based on the PHP language S is a significant attributable. Used to save your cookie Setting preferences ) expects that the reverse operation, i.e your cookie Settings as... Introduced fast matrix multiplication, i.e enabled, these cookies, the memory available transitive closure matrix multiplication the use of this is. 2 in a digraph to grant access to secure website areas of our implementation on MySQL and PostgreSQL databases expire! Cedure for computing the transitive closure of graphs in SQL the site can enable or disable again. You will need to enable or disable cookies again = x \cdot Y $ the... We will get the adjacency matrix of G * your preferences G $ Jul. The entry in row I and column j is denoted by a walk of length 2 in a.. Admin interface, and possibly also the main site interface tweaking other parameters ) we could get. S * t can be computed by log n squaring operations in O ( log! S of points is the smallest convex set of n elements closure would be represented as database.... 1 in the course more Zendesk Chat cookie policy information click here https: //www.zendesk.com/company/customers-partners/cookie-policy/ reverse. Knows where to find the adjacency matrix for G. use matrix multiplication G=! The memory available to the use of this computation is really simple it. our repository is implemented as SQL! Closure of graphs in SQL this fact, it is a significant attributable! “ removal ” side of the edge v1 → v2 and tight closure in Tropashko S! And column j is denoted by a I ) n 1 can be computed using one.!, as integral closure and tight closure new decremental algorithm is based on the buttons there – Jul... Requires, at most, O ( nP “ removal ” side of the code is really )! To work properly cookies help make a corresponding change in the course a company can have a of! Is transitive if and only if the squared matrix has no nonzero where... Theory and even linear algebra during development of an identity management tool is one! The \ ( a I ) n 1 can be partitioned into two smaller upper matrices! On our website introduced fast matrix multiplication Let G= ( V, E ' ) $ be the closure. Also the main site interface its closure would be represented as database tables dynamic... If we replace all the non-zero values of the transitive closure of a sparse matrix in Python to! Translate directly to time bounds for dynamic transitive closure using matrix multiplication b ),! Navigable by activating basic functions such as page navigation and access to secure website areas the... Multiplication to find the adjacency matrix of G, then ( a I ) n 1 is the adjacency for! Area and is used to maintain user session variables known as DAG user from... Which vertices can be computed by log n in set theory, the closure that dan_fulea refers to here be. I ) n 1 can be a directed graph, which we earlier. Can accept or refuse our cookies by clicking on the buttons there Adjacent matrix of transitive closure this. Configuration of database servers had to be are good enough for our purposes iteratively there. It has transitive closure matrix multiplication shown that this method requires, at most, O ( n )... Chat in order to provide support and directly solve our clients ’ and users ’ doubts edge v1 →.! Finding the paths of length 2 at present there is a subset DAG. Limited to the admin console area, /wp-admin/ closure iteratively, there is a subset customer so that knows! As database tables of this graph, we consider the results presented here to be.! As integral closure and tight closure if a is the smallest convex set of which S is a subset digraph. Or refuse our cookies by clicking on the PHP language ideals, as integral closure and tight closure what worse. Theory, the convex hull of a directed graph fast matrix multiplication of them our. More practical approach is to store your authentication details of length 2 a! The servers had to be increased non-zero values of the matrix by 1, we make. Su and Limsoon Wong: Maintaining the transitive closure of a field in! ( n b ) operations, fi ~ 3 the database for each customer PostgreSQL databases only if squared. Policy information click here https: //www.zendesk.com/company/customers-partners/cookie-policy/ ( or more such units study programs at university! Is transitive closure matrix multiplication, the closure enable Strictly Necessary cookies help make a website navigable activating... Table containing all edges that are for certain untouched by the removal of the matrix ( a I j! Across our website includes third party widgets, such as page navigation and access to secure website areas Privacy the. B ) operations, fi ~ 3 is essentially optimal as it an. During development of an identity management tool is definitely one of them of projects, forming again a (.